MicroActive CoQ10 Clinical Studies

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Harker-Murray, AK et al. “The Role of Coenzyme Q10 in the Pathophysiology and Therapy of Experimental Congestive Heart Failure in the Dog.” 2000. 6 (3):233–242.

Topic: What is the role of CoQ10 in the pathophysiology and therapy of congestive heart failure in the dog?

Background: CoQ10 is found in every cell in the body, and it is essential for ATP generation to produce energy for our bodies. CoQ10 also has antioxidant properties, which protect the body from damage caused by harmful molecules. Low CoQ10 levels have been reported in human congestive heart failure (CHF). The objective of the study was to determine whether tachycardia-induced CHF in the dog is associated with reduced CoQ10 levels. Furthermore, it was hypothesized that CoQ10 supplementation may lessen CHF severity by preventing CoQ10 deficiency or by its antioxidant effects

Study Design: Dogs in the study were separated into 3 groups: normal dogs (n = 6), dogs with CHF (control, n = 5), and dogs with CHF treated with CoQ10 (n = 5). Serum and myocardial levels of CoQ10 were examined. Other indices of CHF severity were also examined.

Subjects: 16 dogs

Dosage: 10 mg/kg/day of CoQ10

Result: Serum CoQ10 levels did not change with CHF in the control dogs, and myocardial levels were similar to those of normal dogs. CoQ10 therapy increased serum but not myocardial levels of CoQ10. In early CHF, CoQ10-treated dogs had lower filling pressures, and in severe CHF, CoQ10-treated dogs had less hypertrophy compared with untreated dogs.
Conclusion: CoQ10 supplementation did appear to attenuate the hypertrophic response associated with CHF. 

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Martin SB et al. “Coenzyme Q10 and Cognition in Atorvastatin-Treated Dogs.” 2011. 501 (2): 92–95.

Topic: What is the effect of CoQ10 in atorvastatin-treated dogs?

Background: Alzheimer’s disease is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly, affecting an estimated 5.5 million people in the United States. Like humans, senior dogs also experience changes in the brain that can affect memory and comprehension, which is commonly known as canine cognitive dysfunction or cognitive dysfunction syndrome. The common signs include general confusion or disorientation, wandering and pacing, restlessness, and sleeplessness at night. “Dementia” and “senility” are broad terms used to describe these changes. Similar to Alzheimer’s disease in humans, dementia in dogs primarily affects memory, learning, and comprehension, and their quality of life. Preliminary studies found statins improve cognitive function and reduce the production of beta-amyloid peptides.

Study Design: At base line, animals were ranked by cognitive test scores and placed into 2 equivalent groups with 2 males and 4 females per group. These groups were randomly designated as either the placebo-treated control group or the atorvastatin-treated group. One dog in the control group was euthanized prior to collecting reversal learning error scores. Blood tests and cognitive tests were used to assess learning and memory as well as other related biomarkers.

Subjects: 12 beagles ranging in age from 8.9 to 13.2 years

Dosage: 80 mg/day of atorvastatin

Results: Serum CoQ10 was significantly lower in statin-treated dogs. Parietal cortex CoQ10 was not different between the 2 groups. However, poorer cognition was correlated with lower parietal cortex CoQ10.

Conclusion: This study in dogs suggests that serum CoQ10 is reduced with atorvastatin treatment. CoQ10 levels in the brain may be linked to impaired cognition in response to atorvastatin.

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Ren, Z et al. “Mechanisms of Brain Injury with Deep Hypothermic Circulatory Arrest and Protective Effects of Coenzyme Q10.” 1994. 108 (1):126–133.

Topic: What protective effects does CoQ10 have on brain injury with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest?

Background: An oxygen-derived free radical is an atom or atom group having an unpaired electron on an oxygen atom, typically derived from molecular oxygen. Oxygen-derived free radicals are very important mediators of cell injury and cell death. Oxygen-derived free radicals are highly reactive chemical species important in the aging process and related to many clinical disorders, such as reperfusion injury, pulmonary toxicity, and cancer.  

Study Design: Dogs were divided randomly into a control group and a CoQ10 group. The dogs underwent deep hypothermic circulatory arrest with cardiopulmonary bypass, as is done clinically.

Subjects: 16 dogs

Dosage: 10 mg/kg of CoQ10, given intraperitoneally

Results: This randomized, controlled clinical study showed that during cardiopulmonary bypass, cerebral electron spin resonance spectra and malondialdehyde contents were progressively higher than before bypass. In the CoQ10 group (10 mg/kg, given intraperitoneally before the operation), these two markers had increased less than in the control group. Also, in the CoQ10 group, the ATP level was higher than in the control group. The ultrastructure of the cortex during the bypass process was more normal in the CoQ10 group than in the control group.

Conclusion: The results suggest that oxygen-derived free radicals and abnormal energy metabolism might play critical roles in brain ischemia/reperfusion injury. Coenzyme Q10 could protect the brain by improving cerebral metabolism.

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Svete, AN. “Plasma Coenzyme Q10 Concentration, Antioxidant Status, and Serum N-Terminal Pro-Brain Natriuretic Peptide Concentration in Dogs with Various Cardiovascular Diseases and the Effect of Cardiac Treatment on Measured Variables.” 2017. 78 (4):447–457.

Topic: How does plasma CoQ10 concentration relate to the severity of congestive heart failure in dogs?

Background: Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a condition in which the heart does not pump blood adequately to meet the body’s needs. CHF symptoms vary but can include fatigue, diminished exercise capacity, shortness of breath, and swelling in the limbs or abdomen. Low CoQ10 levels have been reported in human CHF. In animals, some cardiovascular diseases may lead to CHF, and the treatments include medications, surgery, diet, and supplementation.
Study Design: Blood samples were collected from all dog subjects for spectrophotometric assessment of antioxidant variables. Plasma CoQ10 concentration was determined with high-performance liquid chromatography–atmospheric pressure chemical ionization–tandem mass spectrometry. Serum N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentration was measured with an ELISA.

Subjects: 43 dogs with various types and stages of cardiovascular diseases (congenital and acquired) and 29 healthy dogs

Dosage: N/A

Results: Plasma CoQ10 concentration was significantly increased in treated dogs with CHF, compared with untreated patients. A significant, negative correlation between serum NT-proBNP and plasma CoQ10 concentrations was identified in treated CHF-affected dogs, suggesting that low plasma CoQ10 concentration may be associated with increased severity of CHF. 

Conclusion: A reduced plasma CoQ10 level may contribute to the increased severity of CHF.  Therefore, further investigation into the possible effects of CoQ10 supplementation in dogs with advanced stages of CHF is warranted.

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Topic: What effects does CoQ10 have on bacteria-induced sepsis?

Background: CoQ10 has been promoted as an effective agent for reducing the deleterious effects of septic shock by acting as an oxygen free-radical scavenger and thus stabilizing mitochondrial membranes and by inhibiting the arachidonic acid metabolic pathway and the formation of various prostaglandins. 

Study Design: This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of CoQ10 in a live Escherichia coli model of canine septic shock. The subjects were divided into 3 groups. Group 1 (E. coli, n = 5) animals received an LD100 dose of 1 × 109 live E. coli/kg and were given no further treatment. Group 2 (CoQ10, n = 5) animals received a 20 mg/kg bolus of CoQ10 without further treatment. Group 3 (CoQ10 + E. coli, n = 5) animals received a 20 mg/kg bolus of CoQ10 10 minutes prior to a bacterial infusion as in group 1. Various parameters related to septic shock were measured in all groups of animals.

Subjects: 15 dogs

Dosage: 20 mg/kg bolus of CoQ10

Results: Mean arterial pressure stabilized at 70% of base line levels (p < 0.002), while cardiac output remained near 50% of base line levels (p < 0.053) in group 3 compared with group 1 dogs. The arachidonic acid metabolites, prostaglandin E2, thromboxane B2, and leukotriene B4 were significantly elevated in groups 1 and 3 (vs. group 2) (p < 0.05). The catecholamines, tumor necrosis factor, and interleukin-6 were significantly elevated in groups 1 and 3 (vs. group 2) (p < 0.05). Fluorescent products (lipid peroxidation activity) were elevated in group 1 (vs. groups 2 and 3) at 120 and 180 minutes (p < 0.05). 

Conclusion: CoQ10 supports cardiovascular hemodynamics and prevents free radical–mediated lipid peroxidation during live E. coli septic shock, and its effect is not due to altered levels of humoral or cytokine mediators.